164 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION similar treatise, On the Education of Children, written in the following century, dwells on character as the- first consideration for the educator, so Vergerio, while coupling learning and con- duct as the joint aims of study, regards learning as subordinate to morals, A liberal education, he says, is one that " calls forth, trains and develops those highest gifts of body and of mind, which ennoble men and are rightly judged to rank next in dignity to virtue only."* And yet, while not neglecting those physical exercises which serve as a preparation for military life and at the same time bring the body under control of the reason, it is mainly on the literary subjects that Vergerio enters into detail. The course of study he recommends is a much modified form of the seven arts. The fundamental studies are history, ethics and eloquence, under the last being included grammar, the rules of composition, and the art of logical argument. Poetry is suggested as an occupation for leisure hours, and the list ends with the ancient quadrivium. Even more significant than the subjects is his attitude to them. On the one hand, there is a new emphasis on style in literature. " Literature/' he says, " exhibits not facts alone but thoughts and their expression. Provided such thoughts be worthy and worthily expressed, we feel assured that they will not die. . , . What greater charm can life offer than this power of making the past, the present, and even the future our own by means of literature ? "t On the other hand, and equally striking, there is a new note with regard to nature. The quadrivium which the Middle Ages had treated somewhat per- functorily has obviously a value for him such as it had not had since science was a living study among the Greeks. " The knowledge of nature," he adds, after referring to the several branches of science, " the laws and the properties of things in heaven and in earth, their causes, mutations and effects—this is a most delightful and at the same time most profitable study for youth/' The view of education so finely presented by Vergerio was realized in practice in the next generation by Vittorino of Feltre (1378-1446), who has not inaptly been called the first modern schoolmaster. In the interval, the enthusiasm for education had received a fresh impetus from the appearance of a translation of Plutarch's treatise On Education, and the discovery, first of a * Woodward, Vittorino daFdtre^ p. 102, t Woodward, p. 105.